Dudley Engineering’s owner, Drew Dudley,PE was recently published in Insite Magazine! The article explore the causes of expansive soil and dives into the current state of residential foundation design.
Whether you are a contractor, architect, engineer or simply a home owner with a concrete foundation you have most likely heard the adage that “all concrete cracks”. While this is true, there are measures that can be taken to greatly reduce the magnitude and frequency of cracks. To do this, one must have an understanding of the factors that lead to cracking. One such factor is stress concentrations in the concrete which are evident at re-entrant corners. Re-entrant corners are defined as any inside corner that forms an angle of 180° or less. In a solid object that is subjected to internal or external loads, re-entrant corners create high stress concentrations. If that solid object is concrete, which is strong in compression but weak in tension, then it will inevitably lead to a crack that will propagate at approximately 135° from the corner. Re-entrant corner cracks are especially prevalent in concrete slabs that are relatively thin in comparison to their plan size. In this article, I will focus on re-entrant corners in slabs-on-grade.
Examples of loads that can induce stress in concrete slabs include:
Shrinkage of the slab during the curing process when the concrete will shrink in volume as the chemical reaction between the cement and water takes place. Depending on the curing methods in place, the top and bottom surface of the slab will cure at different rates which induces stress in the slab.
Temperature changes. As with all materials, when concrete increases in temperature it will expand and when it decreases in temperature it will shrink. This expansion/shrinkage induces stress in the slab due to restraints such as friction with the bottom of the slab, stiffening ribs, piers etc.
External loads such as additional material or assemblies placed on top of the slab.
There are a number of measures that can be utilized to control re-entrant corner cracks including:
Contraction (Control) Joints: Place contraction joints at the re-entrant corner to create weak planes in the slab that will increase the possibility of cracks forming in the bottom of these contraction joints rather than at ~135° from the corner. Contraction joints can be formed by tooling the joints while the concrete is still plastic or with a saw after the concrete has set. It is important that contraction joints are placed as soon as possible before re-entrant corner cracks begin to form.
Construction Joints: Placing a construction joint 90° to the interior corner eliminates the re-entrant corner and thus the stress concentration.
Wet Curing. Wet curing of the slab will slow down the curing process and will create a more uniform cure rate between the top and bottom of the slab. This has the effect of reducing but not eliminating internal stresses. Wet curing can be accomplished by ponding the slab, utilizing foggers to maintain a humid environment on the slab, or by applying a chemical curing compound. In my experience, ponding of the slab is the most effective means of wet curing however it is typically the least practical.
Water to Cement Ratio: The primary ingredients in concrete are cement, water, fine aggregate and course aggregate. The water chemically reacts with the cement to bind the aggregate in a solid matrix. To fully hydrate cement, a water to cement ratio (w/c ) of 0.26 is required. Additional (free) water is added to the mix to increase the workability of the concrete. As more free water is added to the mix, it increases the shrinkage of the concrete because the free water will eventually evaporate out of the concrete. For our slab-on-grade design, Dudley Engineering typically specifies a maximum w/c ratio of 0.45. Additional workability can be achieved by adding water-reducing admixtures or superplasticizers to the mix.
Fly Ash: Fly ash is a recycled material that can be utilized in limited quantities to replace cement. Replacing a small portion of the cement with fly ash can have the benefit of reducing the expansion of the concrete during curing.
Concrete Additives: There are chemical admixtures which can be added to the concrete mix that reduce the shrinkage rate of the concrete. Recently, on a post-tensioned slab-on-grade foundation that was intended to remain exposed, Dudley Engineering specified a shrinkage-reducing admixture in the concrete. This, along with other measures listed above, has produced a slab that is showing no signs of visible cracks.
To have a slab-on-grade foundation that is relatively crack free even at re-entrant corners, a combination of the solutions addressed above should be utilized. In addition to having a more aesthetic slab, it will also exhibit better structural performance throughout the life of the structure.
In the pursuit of the infamous structural engineer T.Y. Lin’s powerful statement “To engineers who , rather than blindly following the codes of practice, seek to apply the laws of nature” I have always been interested in the subject of advanced framing techniques. The basic premise of advanced framing techniques is “a system of construction framing techniques designed to optimize building materials to produce wood-framed buildings with lower material and labor costs than conventional framed structures. Builders who utilize advanced framing techniques optimize framing material usage, reduce wood waste and, with effective insulation detailing, boost the building’s efficiency to meet today’s energy code requirements. When properly designed and constructed, advanced framed walls that are fully sheathed with wood structural panels, such as plywood or oriented strand board (OSB), provide the structural strength necessary to safely withstand the forces of nature.” (APA The Engineered Wood Association).
For professionals who have experience in structural steel and reinforced concrete framing systems, the definition of “advanced framing” will sound very similar to what has been the standard practice in steel and concrete for decades. The reason this practice is titled “advanced” in the wood industry is due to the wide use of prescriptive design, which has never been prevalent in the steel and concrete industries. It is my belief that the development of the prescriptive design in the International Residential Code has caused the wood framing industry to largely lag behind its counterparts in terms of material and labor efficiency. With the availability of software programs that can readily analyze wood framed structures I think it is time for the wood industry to re-evaluate the widespread use of prescriptive designs and utilize advanced framing techniques to elevate wood framing up to par with concrete and steel framing techniques.
I recently had the opportunity to put advanced framing techniques to the test with my own personal residence. My wife and I designed our 2,800 SF ranch house on our 10 acre property in Montgomery, Texas. For the framing, I designed all of the exterior walls to be 2×6 studs @ 24” O.C. The material savings came out to approximately 30% compared to traditional 2×4 stud walls @ 16” O.C. Other advanced framing techniques that were utilized included:
floor joists and rafters spaced @ 24” O.C. which took advantage of the the subfloor and roof deck’s inherent ability to span distance greater than 16” and reduced the total number of pieces.
Insulated exterior headers which reduced thermal bridging with little detriment to the structural capacity.
Blocking and straps at shear walls utilizing the “Force Transfer Around Openings” analysis approach that reduced the total length of shear walls required.
In the end, the framer was able to successfully implement the design as intended. Besides the material savings, the advanced framing techniques also provide additional benefits such as a larger cavity space for insulation in the exterior walls and less thermal bridging due to the reduced number of pieces in the exterior wall. I consider this implementation of advanced framing a success and look forward to its use on future projects.